Over the last decade, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have attracted a considerable amount of research. Record efficiency has been quickly increasing with device performance well over 20 %. Nevertheless, several challenges for the demonstration of industry compatible large scale PSCs must be met to ensure a bright future for PSCs production.
CEA achieved high level of performances regarding material formulations enabling methyl ammonium-free, multi-cations and mixed halides highly efficient perovskite layer (i.e. CsxFA1-xPb (I1-yBry)3) at low temperature processing < 100 °C and with the subsequent upscaling from single cells to small PV modules.
The upscalable process combines a coating step in air followed by a gas quenching conversion step to form the perovskite layer. The as-formed layer is then integrating into modules using laser ablation to structure the stack and minimize dead areas. In this way CEA‘s R&D team at INES was able to demonstrate maximum efficiency up to 18 % on 10 cm² (active area) under full sun illumination with high active area ratio (> 93 %).
This technique is actually compatible for its integration on heterojunction silicon cells for tandem architecture technology currently developed within CEA at INES for highly efficient premium PV products. Time needed for the deposition of the perovskite layer onto M2 size wafer is about 30s which is by far one the most rapid process known today for large scale and high volume production.
Acknowledgment: CEA, Carnot Energies du Futur Si-Premium, H2020 EU Grant APOLO project N°763989.