This ESPResSo-project aims to bring the novel emerging hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite-based solar cell (PSC) technology to its next maturity level. In recent years (see Figure 1), this solution-processable solar technology has reached cell efficiency values rivalling those of established thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology (CIGS, CdTe), even approaching crystalline Si (c-Si) records. The challenge is now to transfer this unprecedented progress from its cell level into a scalable, stable, low-cost technology on module level. The consortium brought together here has alternative materials, insights in novel cell concepts and architectures, and the processing know-how and equipment at hand to overcome these barriers and realize following global objective: Demonstrate a highly efficient (>17%) perovskite-based 35x35cm² module architecture that shows long-term (>20 years) reliable performance as deduced from IEC-compliant test conditions. This module is to be produced with industry-relevant low CAPEX manufacturing techniques validating a potential electricity cost as low as 0.05€/kWh in Southern Europe. Installing an actual building-integrated facade element will validate the potential contribution of this technology to the future European energy supply system. Additionally, prototyping advanced, arbitrary-shaped module architectures with specific materials and process combinations will emphasize that new highly innovative applications like on flexible substrates or with high semi-transparency are well accessible on mid- to longer-term with this very promising thin-film PV technology.
Solid state lead halide perovskites have recently emerged as the latest thin-film photovoltaic device class. High power conversion efficiencies (22 %) and stabilities (> 1000 hours at 80 ˚C under 1 sun illumination) have been obtained using lab scale processes and small area cells (<1cm2). The building blocks of the perovskite materials are very low cost and the processing into the final perovskite thin-film can be achieved with low temperature fast processes. This makes these materials very cost efficient, and promises to deliver a future PV technology with a levelled cost of electricity (LCOE) below that of existing mainstream PV. There has been much advancement with combining perovskite with silicon cells, to deliver a “tandem” junction cell with much higher efficiency than either sub-cell. Although this perovskite-on-silicon approach is likely to deliver the first perovskite PV products, it restricts the manufacturing and module format to wafer based, and hence misses out on the real promise of ultimate high volume manufacturing via large area sheet-to-sheet or reel-to-reel coating. Within PERTPV we will advance the perovskite thin-film PV technology to the next level by undertaking a “double pronged” drive on both performance (efficiency and stability) and the development of scalable device and module fabrication methodologies, compatible with high volume manufacturing. Our consortium consists of the leading academic groups in perovskite PV research, in addition to research companies, and 3 commercial partners at appropriately complementary stages in the value chain (Technology driver, materials supplier and equipment supplier). In addition to our ambitions target of surpassing 30% power conversion efficiency in a thin film all-perovskite tandem cell, and delivering a certifiably stable module technology, we will also perform full life cycle analysis and ensure a safe means to undertake mass deployment and recycling of the Perovskite PV modules.
The aim of CHEOPS is to develop very low-cost but highly performing photovoltaic (PV) devices based on the emerging perovskite (PK) technology. At lab scale (<0.5cm2), PK energy conversion was rapidly advanced to efficiencies >20%. But only few attempts at upscaling have been made, yielding significantly reduced efficiencies <9% on aperture area. In addition, the very question about material stability and reliable measurement procedures are still debated. CHEOPS will now scale up the lab results to single junction modules manufactured in a pre-production environment while maintaining high efficiencies (>14% stable for aperture area in modules >15x15cm2). This will demonstrate the potential of PK as a very low-cost technology (target <0.3€/Wp) well suited for building-integrated PV. In parallel, CHEOPS will develop materials and processes to achieve very high efficiency (>29% on 2x2cm2 cells) at low cost (target <0.4€/Wp) using a tandem configuration with a crystalline silicon heterojunction cell. CHEOPS will also perform a sustainability assessment from a life-cycle perspective to anticipate potential risks for the technology (including business, technological, environmental, social & political risks). CHEOPS will establish a quantified future development roadmap as well as protocols for stability testing and for reliable measurements. CHEOPS partners cover the whole value added chain: key PK researchers, groups with track records of scaling up high efficiency and tandem cell developments, specialised technology and service providers as well as SMEs and industry partners with already strong IP portfolios, ready to exploit the CHEOPS results. Transferring the results to other growing industry sectors such as lighting or organic large area electronics will additionally benefit European industry. In summary, CHEOPS will decisively advance the potentially game-changing PK technology towards the market and will thus help to face the energy challenge in Europe and beyond.